Determination of cialis reactions to the introduction of insulin.
With the introduction of insulin, local and general forms of allergy are possible. The possibility of developing an allergic reaction is determined by the presence of impurities in the preparation (prolongators, preservatives, stabilizing agents) and insulin itself.
An allergic reaction to insulin may develop immediately on the first injection, but more often it develops after four weeks of insulin therapy.
At the site of insulin injection, the classic symptoms of inflammation develop. An allergic reaction can occur in the form of urticaria or Quincke's edema.
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There are three forms of immediate hypersensitivity according to the clinical course: Local - characterized by an inflammatory process at the injection site of insulin; Systemic - characterized by the development of manifestations in places remote from the injection site; Mixed - includes local and systemic manifestations at the same time.
Currently, two forms of insulin allergy are distinguished according to the speed of the reaction: Immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. Characterized by a rapid onset (less than half an hour after injection), the appearance of urticaria at the injection site, a pale pink rash or brighter skin manifestations; Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. It is characterized by delayed development (from 20 to 30 hours after the injection of the drug), the appearance of subcutaneous infiltrates.
Also, signs of an overdose of insulin are indicated by such signs as: sweating at night; headache in the morning; convulsive disorders; depression; lethargy; liver enlargement due to glycogen accumulation, increased tolerance to the drug.
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Additional symptoms of overdose are polyuria, the prevalence of Cialis diuresis (nocturia) and enuresis, increased appetite, weight gain, emotional lability. Fasting glucose may fluctuate within normal limits, but at the same time decrease at night. Also, hyperglycemia can be observed in the morning, which leads to a worsening of the course of the disease, due to an increase in the required dose of insulin. What are the allergic reactions to insulin?
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The rapid rise in adrenaline levels leads to increased sweating, finger tremors, weakness, palpitations, fear and hunger.
A local reaction to insulin preparations manifests itself directly at the injection site, usually within 7-14 days from the start of therapy, develops rapidly (1 hour after administration, sometimes within the first day). It is characterized by hyperemia and swelling of the skin area up to 5 cm in diameter, a burning sensation, itching or pain. Sometimes a papular rash, subcutaneous infiltrates may appear. The Arthus phenomenon (aseptic tissue necrosis) rarely develops. In the etiology of immediate type hypersensitivity, the main role belongs to circulating immunoglobulins (antibodies) of classes E and G.
Allergic reactions are divided into local (local) and generalized (general).
The general reaction to insulin preparations is characterized by the appearance of an urticarial itchy rash, angioedema, bronchospasm, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, multiple arthralgias, changes in the blood (thrombocytopenic purpura, an increase in the number of eosinophils, an increase in lymph nodes), in rare cases, anaphylaxis with the development of shock is observed.